Nigeria houses a cornucopia of both plants and animal species which makes it very rich in biodiversity. The considerable levels of endemism and species richness in the country are due to a complex topography, favourable climate and wide range of habitats. These include but are not limited to coastal creeks of the Niger Delta, the rainforests of the Cross River basin and the mountains along the Cameroun border. The Atlantic Ocean forms the southern border part of Nigeria, and with its highly diverse marine and freshwater ecosystems. There exists an inland layout of an array of other forest ecosystems including the Sahel Savannah in the extreme North, Sudan Savannah, Guinea Savannah and Derived Savannah woodland. Species statistics showed that Nigeria has an endemic flora of 91 species belonging to 44 families with Rubiaceae accounting for the highest numbers. A list of faunal species was also outlined. According to the IUCN Red list 2013, Nigeria has a total of 309 threatened species in the following taxonomic categories: Mammals (26), Birds (19), Reptiles (8), Amphibians (13), Fishes (60), Molluscs (1), other Invertebrates (14) and Plants (168) (Sedghi, 2013). The categories of biodiversity related sites in Nigeria include: 7 National Parks of Old Oyo, Cross River, Gashaka-Gumti, Okomu, Chad Basin, Kainji Lake, and Kamuku; 27 Important Bird Areas including all National Parks and 60% the Ramsar sites; 11 Ramsar Sites; 2 World Heritage Sites of Sukur Kingdom and Osun Osogbo Grove; 994 Forest Reserves; 32 Game Reserves; 1 Biosphere Reserve; and many Sacred groves at varied level of protection. This document gave information on the status of biodiversity and its contribution to varied sectors of Nigerian economy including tourism, agriculture, water resources, health, commerce and industrial development. It showed how biodiversity impacts on the lives and livelihoods of the people as well. The value of biodiversity to Nigerians and the linkages it has on various sectors of the Nigerian economy was vividly shown. The threats to biodiversity, causes and consequences of biodiversity loss in Nigeria were also identified and analysed. It outlined the Policy, Legal, and Institutional Frameworks on conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity as an integral part of the national policy on environment. There was an elaboration of Stakeholders on Biodiversity management. This revised NBSAP was developed within the framework of stakeholder’s participatory approach involving series of plenary of multi-stakeholders workshop and peer reviews with over 500 stakeholders ranging from international and national experts to officials of sub national entities and managers of natural resources at the grass root. The consultative process included a detailed review of Nigeria’s first NBSAP (2001-2010) which provided valuable lessons and guidance for the formulation of this second NBSAP (2016 – 2020). Some of the key lessons learned from the first NBSAP include the lack of management structures for implementation of the NBSAP and the low level of awareness creation at Federal, State and Local governments during its preparation. Institutional linkages were not properly addressed in the implementation plan of action. Targets and Actions were not set to address identified major challenges although challenges were identified. Strategies for mainstreaming biodiversity into different sectors were weakly analysed in the first NBSAP. These shortcomings of the previous NBSAP form the bases of the lessons learned and the planning process of the current NBSAP has addressed them as critical in the implementation of the revised NBSAP. Nigeria’s Long Term Vision for biodiversity management is: ‘A Nigeria with healthy living environment where people live in harmony with nature and sustain the gains and benefits of biodiversity, integrating biodiversity into National programme aimed at reducing poverty and developing a secure future in line with the principle of ecological sustainability and social equity.’ The major focus of this vision is the consideration of genetic materials as a strategic but fragile resource to be conserved, sustainably utilized and perhaps more importantly to be deployed as natural capital for socio -economic development of Nigeria. Seven principles governing the national biodiversity Strategy were outlined. These are linked to Nigeria’s commitment to the CBD that is a genuine appreciation of biodiversity in national development and socio-economic welfare of the Nigerian people. They include specific principles that support global best practices in biodiversity management and in general, the environment and natural resources. Nigeria considers the five goals of the Global Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 very appropriate and applicable to its situation and adopted them to form the basis of the current NBSAP. It has also adopted 14 SMART National Targets with 21 Impact Indicators and 67 Actions with 123 Performance Indicators and 20 Programmes. Consequently, Nigeria’s current NBSAP is closely aligned to both the CBD Strategic Plan for biodiversity 2011-2020 and its Aichi biodiversity Targets and Nigeria’s unique Priorities and features.
NIGERIA NATIONAL BIODIVERSITY STRATEGY AND ACTION PLAN 2016-2020
Governance of protected areas